A speech disorder refers to a problem with the actual production of sounds. 

Speech Concerns can include the following areas:

•Articulation disorders: difficulties producing sounds in syllables or saying words incorrectly to the point that listeners can’t understand what’s being said.

•Fluency disorders: Non-fluid speech concerns such as stuttering, in which the flow of speech is interrupted by abnormal stoppages, repetitions (ex. D-d-d-duck), or prolonging sounds and syllables (ex. bbbbbbus).

•Resonance or voice disorders: inappropriate variances with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that distract listeners from what’s being said. These types of disorders may also cause pain or discomfort for a child when speaking.

•Dysphagia/oral feeding disorders: these include difficulties with drooling, eating, and swallowing


A language disorder refers to a difficulty understanding or putting words together to communicate ideas.

Language disorders can be either receptive or expressive:

•Receptive disorders: difficulties understanding or processing language.

•Expressive disorders: difficulty putting words together, limited vocabulary, or inability to use language in a socially appropriate way.

Special Needs Boy

Occupational therapy services typically include:

  • An individualized evaluation, during which the client/family and occupational therapist determine the person’s goals,
  • A customized intervention to improve the person’s ability to perform daily activities and reach the goals,
  • An outcomes evaluation to ensure that the goals are being met and/or make changes to the intervention plan.

Occupational therapy services may include comprehensive evaluations of the client’s home and other environments (e.g., workplace, school), recommendations for adaptive equipment and training in its use, and guidance and education for family members and caregivers. Occupational therapy practitioners have a holistic perspective, in which the focus is on adapting the environment to fit the person, and the person is an integral part of the therapy team.

Physical Therapy

What is Pediatric Physical Therapy?

Pediatric physical therapists (PTs) work with children and their families to assist each child in reaching their maximum potential to function independently and to promote active participation in home, school, and community environments. Physical therapists have expertise in movement, motor development, and body function (eg, strength and endurance). They apply clinical reasoning during examination, evaluation, diagnosis, and intervention for children, youth, and young adults. As primary health care providers, PTs also promote health and wellness as they implement a wide variety of supports in collaboration with families, communities, and other medical, educational, developmental, and rehabilitation specialists.

What Role Does the Family Play? Parents and families have the primary role in their child’s development. The pediatric PT collaborates with the family to promote development and implement an individualized intervention program. Families are supported through coordination of services, advocacy, and assistance to enhance the development of their children.

This can include: • Positioning during daily routines and activities • Adapting toys for play • Expanding mobility options • Using equipment effectively • Facilitating safety for the home and community • Accessing community programs and resources • Providing information on the child’s physical and health care needs • Supporting family caregiving • Smoothing transitions from early childhood to school and into adult life

The process of supporting children and families begins with an interview, or conversation, to identify the child’s needs and family’s concerns and continues with an examination and evaluation of the child in the context of their daily routines and activities. This examination may include, but not be limited to, mobility, sensory and neuromotor development, use of assistive technology, muscle, and joint function, strength, and endurance, cardiopulmonary status,

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